Among the crimes against honor we find two criminal modalities, the crime of slander and insult.
Slander consists of the imputation of a crime to a person knowing that it is false or with reckless disregard for the truth.
Insult consists in using actions or expressions that injure the dignity of another person, undermining their fame or undermining their own esteem. To be considered a crime, it must be considered serious.
The 2015 Reform of the Penal Code decriminalized those insults that are not considered in a public concept as serious, with the exception of insults, including minor insults, described in article 173, 4º of the Penal Code (gender violence)
Regarding the procedural requirements, we must highlight the following:
1º.- The complaint for slander or insults requires the filing of a prior conciliation claim. The request for prior conciliation is governed by the Voluntary Jurisdiction Law and must have been attempted, with or without effect. Failure to comply with this procedural requirement would lead to the inadmissibility of the complaint for insults or slander for processing (Articles 278 and 804 LECrim)
2º.- When dealing with insults or slander made in court, it will be necessary to prove the authorization or license of the Judge or Court before whom they were made (articles 279 and 805 LECrim). Failure to comply with this requirement leads to the inadmissibility of the complaint.
3º.- Another fact to take into account is the statute of limitations for the crimes of insults and slander is one year, as stated in article 131 of the Penal Code.